Design patterns are reusable solutions to common software design problems. They provide a structured approach to designing code that is flexible, maintainable, and scalable. Here are a few commonly used design patterns in PHP with examples:

  1. Factory Pattern:
    The Factory pattern provides an interface for creating objects without specifying their concrete classes. It allows you to centralize the object creation logic. Here’s an example:
interface Logger {
    public function log($message);

class FileLogger implements Logger {
    public function log($message) {
        echo "Logging message to a file: $message";

class DatabaseLogger implements Logger {
    public function log($message) {
        echo "Logging message to a database: $message";

class LoggerFactory {
    public static function createLogger($type) {
        if ($type === 'file') {
            return new FileLogger();
        } elseif ($type === 'database') {
            return new DatabaseLogger();
        return null;

// Usage:
$logger = LoggerFactory::createLogger('file');
$logger->log("Error occurred."); // Output: Logging message to a file: Error occurred.
  1. Observer Pattern:
    The Observer pattern establishes a one-to-many dependency between objects. When the state of one object changes, all its dependent objects (observers) are automatically notified and updated. Here’s an example:
interface Observer {
    public function update($data);

class Subject {
    private $observers = [];

    public function attach(Observer $observer) {
        $this->observers[] = $observer;

    public function detach(Observer $observer) {
        $index = array_search($observer, $this->observers);
        if ($index !== false) {

    public function notify($data) {
        foreach ($this->observers as $observer) {

    public function doSomething() {
        // Perform some action
        // Notify observers
        $this->notify('Some data');

class ConcreteObserver implements Observer {
    public function update($data) {
        echo "Received data: $data";

// Usage:
$subject = new Subject();

$observer1 = new ConcreteObserver();
$observer2 = new ConcreteObserver();


$subject->doSomething(); // Output: Received data: Some data
  1. Repository Pattern:
    The Repository pattern separates the data access logic from the business logic. It provides a way to encapsulate data operations and abstracts the underlying data storage implementation. Here’s an example:
class UserRepository {
    private $db;

    public function __construct(Database $db) {
        $this->db = $db;

    public function findById($id) {
        // Database query to retrieve user by ID
        return $this->db->query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = $id");

    public function save($user) {
        // Database query to save user data
        $this->db->query("INSERT INTO users (name, email) VALUES ('$user->name', '$user->email')");

// Usage:
$db = new Database(); // Assume Database class exists
$userRepository = new UserRepository($db);

$user = $userRepository->findById(1);
echo "User ID: " . $user['id']; // Output: User ID: 1

$newUser = new User("John Doe", "");

These are just a few examples of design patterns in PHP. Design patterns help in creating modular, reusable, and maintainable code by following established best practices and principles.

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